Marmon-Herrington Trucks of the Iranian Army Before World War Two

As part of its modernization drive from the mid-1920s to the early 1940s, the Iranian army focused on procuring modern artillery and armored vehicles for its forces. Mechanized transport became a high priority, with purchases made from various overseas suppliers. Of note was the purchase of heavy trucks from the Indianapolis-based Marmon-Herrington Company.

persianmhheavytrucksA total of 24 Marmon-Herrington trucks delivered to Iran in 1935 (Source: Overvalwagen). These also towed artillery pieces (what type remains unknown). It is not known how many more of these vehicles were delivered before the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on August 25, 1941.

Marmon-Herrington was a world class heavy vehicle producer (armored vehicles and trucks). Marmon-Herrington trucks were to serve in several climactic conditions in many regions of the globe. This robust and reliable vehicle made a highly favorable impression on the Iranian army.

Marmon-Harrington Truck-Iranian Army-3Iranian Army Marmon-Herrington 6×6 ammunition truck (TH 310 Series?) of the Iranian Army sometime in 1940-1941 (Source: Overvalwagen).

There were other Marmon-Herrington (6×6) vehicles that were delivered to the Iranian army by 1940. These included the (heavy) DSD400-6 truck and the DSD800-6 artillery tractors, plus other possible (and unspecified as of yet) truck types. The artillery tractors were deployed for the transport of infantry and the towing of artillery pieces (currently unclear as to what type, size, etc.) for mechanized units.

Marmon-Harrington Truck-Iranian Army-4An antique Iranian army Marmon-Herrington Truck in the Tehran Museum (Source: Overvalwagen). Sadly, the vehicle is in a state of neglect and deteriorating in its battle against the elements.

Armored Vehicles of the Iranian Army 1921-1941

Below are a number of rare photographs of the Iranian army ranging from (circa) 1921-1941. The acquisition of heavy military equipment (as displayed below) and the formation of more modern units based on armored vehicles in the 1921-1941 period is discussed in Farrokh’s third text Iran at War: 1500-1988 in pages 264-266 (accompanying footnotes in pages 443-444).

Iran built up its forces of armored combat vehicles and tanks during the interwar years between World War One and World War Two. Among the first wheeled military vehicles to formally enter service with the Iranian army were the sturdy old British Rolls Royce India (1921) Pattern armored cars armed with Vickers machine guns.

3-Rolls Royce-Armored carsVery rare (if weathered) photograph of the four Rolls Royce armored cars in Iranian army service delivered to Iran in 1924. Note the rounded copula. The vehicle was armed with the Vickers .303 machine gun. The sturdy Rolls Royce may have been used by the Iranian army to disarm tribal rebels in Iran’s south and southwest (Picture Source: Matofi, A., 1999, Tarikh-e-Chahar Hezar Sal-e Artesh-e Iran: Az Tamadon-e Elam ta 1320 Khorsheedi, Jang-e- Iran va Araqh [The 4000 Year History of the Army of Iran: From the Elamite Civilization to 1941, the Iran-Iraq War]. Tehran:Entesharat-e Iman, pp. 1045).

Iran’s first half-track vehicles were the French-built Citroen (half-tracked) vehicles.

1-Citroen-half TrackIranian army personnel on maneuvers with what appear to be French made Citroen half-tracks. According to Matofi, these were the first half-tracks to enter service with the Iranian army in 1925 (Picture Source: Matofi, A., 1999, Tarikh-e-Chahar Hezar Sal-e Artesh-e Iran: Az Tamadon-e Elam ta 1320 Khorsheedi, Jang-e- Iran va Araqh [The 4000 Year History of the Army of Iran: From the Elamite Civilization to 1941, the Iran-Iraq War]. Tehran:Entesharat-e Iman, pp.1045).

Augmenting Iran’s non-tracked vehicles were the more potent American made LaFrance TK-6 armored car armed with a 37cm main gun and two machine guns of unknown caliber. It is still not clear how many TK-6 types were in Iranian service.

4-American LaFrance TK-6American made LaFrance TK-6 armed with a 37mm main gun and two machine guns, built for the Iranian army in 1933 (Picture Source: FSU.edu).

Iran also made a special order of Marmon-Herrington armored cars which were delivered by the mid-1930s.

Marmon-Herrington-Armored Car[Click to Enlarge] The Marmon-Herrington company designed the above 12 armored cars on specific requirements outlined by the Iranian army. Note that these vehicles have been equipped with a Landsverk type turret which is armed with a Bofors 37mm gun (Picture Source: Marmon-Herrington Yahoo Groups).

Another Iranian armored car was the M-H.

M-H Iranian Army[Click to Enlarge] The M-H (1934 series) armored car in Iranian service; twelve of these served with the Iranian army (Picture Source: Network54).

At the eve of the Second World War, Iran possessed a force of 102 non-tank armored vehicles. The first tanks (fully tracked – not half tracks like the Citroen cited earlier) to arrive into Iran were the French FT-17 light tanks in 1925. These were armed with the 7.92 mm machine gun.

8-FT17-Brazil-1921A French-made FT-17 light tank delivered to Brazil in 1921. Iran was to receive its FT-17s four years later (Picture Source: Public Domain).

The FT-17 was followed in delivery to Iran by the US-made Marmon Herrington which was also armed with machine guns.

5-Marmon Herrington CTL1A Marmon-Herrington CTL1 (built in Indianapolis, USA) in Iranian service. Note the absence of any heavy gun on the vehicle which was armed with just a single machine gun.  Iran possessed 12 of these vehicles by 1941 (Photo Source: FSU.edu).

By the onset of World War Two, Iran had less than 200 tanks, with one of the most modern of these being TNH light tanks armed with the 37mm gun. The TNH was highly popular among the Iranian armored corps as well as the Iranian public, who were impressed by these during army parades. Fifty TNH light tanks and fifty AH-IV tankettes equipped the first and second armored divisions (each equipped with 25 TNH and 25 AH-IV [discussed below] respectively). Up to 300 more of these had been ordered by Iran but these never arrived after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in August 1941.

6-TNH light tankThe TNH light tank of the Iranian army first delivered in 1937. Note the Sherman tank (delivered to Iran after World War Two) behind the TNH (Photo Source: (Picture Source: Matofi, A., 1999, Tarikh-e-Chahar Hezar Sal-e Artesh-e Iran: Az Tamadon-e Elam ta 1320 Khorsheedi, Jang-e- Iran va Araqh [The 4000 Year History of the Army of Iran: From the Elamite Civilization to 1941, the Iran-Iraq War]. Tehran:Entesharat-e Iman, pp.1134).

Another type of the most modern tanks in the Iranian army inventory before World War Two was the Czech built AH–IV. The AH-IV like all orders delivered by the Czechs to Iran was built specifically to satisfy Iranian specifications. The tanks themselves were manufactured by the Skoda Company with the machine guns built by Skoda’s competitor, Zbrojovka Brno. Iran was to also use large numbers of Brno rifles which were manufactured locally under license (For more on the Brno click here…).

7-AH-IV-TanketteAn AH-IV tankette engaged in practice drills in a Tehran barracks in the 1930s. Note the TNH light tank in the background (Photo Source: FSU.edu).

Despite the rise of the armored corps, cavalry remained Iran’s primary weapon of rapid attack and maneuver. This was because Iran’s armored forces had not yet been able to assume the primary role in such operations. For this to evolve, the Iranian army needed to form a professional cadre of officers cognizant of the latest methods of European armored warfare. Iran did have numbers of such officers trained in European schools, but these could not advance to higher ranks due to overall problems in the upper echelons of command.

The Iranian Army Berno (Brno) Rifle

The Iranian-built “Berno” was originally designed by Czechoslovakia’s Zbrojovka Brno Company, which was a weapons and vehicle manufacturing firm. The Czechoslovak rifle  was actually based on the German Gew 98b design. Technically, this was the Mauser 1898, featuring a total length of 1250 mm, originally as the G98 (meaning Gewehr 98, meaning the 1898 rifle 1898 model for the Imperial German Army). This design was so reliable and it influenced the production of some models of the US Springfield and British Lee-Enfield rifles.

Berno-16-G98The original Mauser G98 from which the Czechoslovak Brno was based on (Picture Source: Aliparsa.com). Several industrialized nations have built the Mauser rifle and clones have been made in virtually every through license agreements with the Mauser firm in Orberndorf, Germany. One of the most prominent of these licensing arrangements was made with Czechoslovakia which led to the production (also via licensing) of high-quality models in Iran as well. Several other nations have also produced the Mauser-based rifle, including, Turkey, Peru, Venezuela, Spain, Brazil, Spain, Mexico, Sweden, Belgium, Argentina, and Yugoslavia.

It did not take long for this venerable weapon with its excellent bolt-action technology to find its way into Iran by the early 1900s. Iranian Constitutional fighters used this weapon in their battles to promote what was Western Asia’s first Democracy movement.

Berno-15-M<ashrooteh-MausersAn excellent photo of Iranian Constitutional Fighters armed with the Mauser (Picture Source: Aliparsa.com). This weapon was to be later introduced on a much larger scale as the Iranian army manufactured it under license from the Czechoslovak Zbrojovka Brno Company.

By the mid-1920s, two other types of rifles were being used in Iran: the Russian Mosin-Nagant (Noghaan, or Naaghaan, نوغان- ناغان in the popular slang of the time)and the British Lee-Enfield. Explanations vary as to why the administration of Reza Shah chose to adopt the Mauser-based Brno. One strong possibility is that Reza Shah wanted to distance the Iranian army’s reliance on Britain and Russia as sources of military supplies. Whatever the true reason, the Iranian Army opted to adopt the Berno (Brno) as its primary infantry rifle. In addition, the Berno (Brno) was considered to be he best rifle of its type at the time.

Berno-6[Click to Enlarge] The original delivery Berno [Brno] manufactured in Czechoslovakia for the Iranian army (Picture Source: Milpas). Note the Persian writing which states “Karkhaneye Aslahe-Saziye Berno [Lit. Brno Weapons manufacturing Factory]”. The Jalali Calendar date of 1309 on the rifle places its date of manufacture to 1930. 

Iran was to later produce the weapon under license. By the late 1940s, the Taslihat-e Artesh (Arms Factories of the Army) in Tehran, known colloquially as “Mosalsal-sazi” (lit. machine-gun construction), engaged in the mass-production of the Berno [Brno].

Berno-12-Kootah[Click to Enlarge] A version of the Berno (Brno) produced in Iran in 1949 – Jalali calendar of 1328 (Picture Source: Aliparsa.com). The Persian script states “Sakht-e Aslehe-Sazi-e Artesh” [lit. Built by the Weapons Manufacturing of the Army].

The Iranian army considered the “Berno” (Brno) as the best military rifle of its time. Iranian veterans have noted of the sturdiness and reliability of this rifle. Iranian tribal warriors especially valued the Berno (Brno) well into the late 1970s.

 Berno-3A more comprehensive view of the 1930 Czech manufacture Berno [Brno] (Picture Source: Milpas).

The Iranian built Berno (Brno) came in two versions:

1) the regular Berno (Brno) (Length=1110 mm): this was technically the regular VZ24 rifle, highly similar to the Kar-98k of Germany.

2) a shorter version of the Berno (Brno) known as Berno e Kootah (the short Berno) (Length=993 mm): this was similar to the G-30 of Germany.

 Berno-13-Kootah-Full

The Berno e Kootah (the short Berno) (Picture Source: Aliparsa.com). The required machinery and training for producing the Berno (Brno) rifles was provided by the Czech powerhouse firm, Škoda, which has had long-standing ties with the Iranian industrial sector.

The Berno (Brno) remained as the standard weapon of the Iranian army until its replacement The Berno (Brno) remained in Iranian army service until 1960 when it was finally replaced by the US- M1 Garand semi-automatic rifle. The M1 in turn was replaced by the German-designed G3 of Heckler and Koch in the 1970s. The Berno however was to remain in service with the Iranian Gendarmerie until 1979.

Berno-2Another view of the 1930 Czech manufactured Brno; note close-ups of insignias and the Lion and Sun symbol (Picture Source: Milpas). 

Despite its phasing out in the 1960s-1970s, the Berno (Brno) continued to earn the admiration and respect of the Iranian infantrymen.

Berno-11[Click to Enlarge] Yet another view of the 1930 Czech manufacture Brno; the section above has the Persian word “Piyade” which roughly translates as “Infantryman”, but the term is better translated as “on Foot”. The term (Piyade) in Iranian military lexicon is meant to be differentiated from the Savar (mounted cavalryman) (Picture Source: Milpas). 

The Berno (Brno) was to serve the Iranian Army with special effectiveness, especially against Soviet-trained persons who were fighting against Tehran to advance the cause of the former Soviet Union inside Iran.

Iranian Army training 1940sIranian soldiers in training during the allied occupation of Iran (Picture Source: MilitaryPhotos.net); note the Berno [Brno] rifles slung on their shoulders during the exercises. When Russia withdrew her military umbrella from her satellite states in northern Iran in May 1946, the Moscow-Baku controlled separatist movements of northwest Iran quickly collapsed as the Iranian army entered the region in December 1946 (For more information see Iran at War: 1500-1988-(ایران در جنگ (۱۹۸۸-۱۵۰۰- 2011 -pp. 283-293).

Iranian Artillery Units: Early 1900s-1941

Early 1900s-1925

The battered Iranian military had yet to recover from its devastating defeats at Russian and British hands in the first five decades of the 19th century which resulted in the losses of large chunks of territory, notably Herat and the South Caucasus. Another issue was vehement Russian (and latent British – esp. by the early 1900s) opposition to the revival and modernization of the Iranian army.

The Iranian military by the early 1900s was poorly organized with much of its equipment obsolete and inadequately maintained. There were small numbers of modern artillery and machine guns but at wholly insufficient quantities. This meant that Imperial Russian, British and Ottoman armies could enter Iranian territory at will.

Iranian Gendarmes-75 mm guns[Click to Enlarge] The most effective force of the Iranian military prior to and during World war One: the Gendarmerie – above are Iranian Gendarmerie posing with two 75mm (Shneider-Cruesot?) in Tehran prior to World War One (Picture Source: Morgan Shuster, The Strangling of Persia, T. Fisher Unwin, London, 1913, pp. 144, 152). Despite being a para-military force, the Iranian Gendarmes fought very well against opponents who enjoyed superiority in numbers and military equipment.  For more on the Iranian Gendarmerie, consult Professor Stephanie Cronin’s article in the Encylopedia Iranica.

By the end of World War One, Iran’s artillery corps was equipped with a chaotic motley left-over Ottoman, Russian and British, along with some numbers of German made MG-08 pieces and the Swedish Bofors 75mm mountain gun.

Iranian Artillery Units: Early 1920s-1941

Iran’s inventory of artillery in 1922 stood at a modest total of just 86 pieces. This was dangerously inadequate for the task of defending the country’s borders, a fact fully understood by the new unified and modernized Iranian military force, which began its debut from the mid-1920s.

2-Bofors-75 mmAn old undated photo of an Iranian Swedish made Bofors 75mm mountain gun. These had seen service with the Iranian army since the early 20th century. Four of these have survived to this day, now on display at the gates of the Gilan barracks in northern Iran (Picture Source: Matofi, A., 1999, Tarikh-e-Chahar Hezar Sal-e Artesh-e Iran: Az Tamadon-e Elam ta 1320 Khorsheedi, Jang-e- Iran va Araqh [The 4000 Year History of the Army of Iran: From the Elamite Civilization to 1941, the Iran-Iraq War]. Tehran:Entesharat-e Iman, p. 1043).

Reza Shah placed a high priority towards the modernization and expansion of Iran’s armed forces, with the artillery corps receiving close attention. By 1941 Iran possessed 874 cannon, with 350 modern pieces (mainly light and medium calibers – some motorized) being ordered from overseas. The artillery force however continued to use antiquated equipment such as the 75mm Bofors mountain guns and the Shneider-Cruesot 75-mm cannon seen during the Constitutional revolution. Nevertheless, in just 19 years (1922-1941) Iran’s inventory of cannon had increased ten-fold. This was a remarkable achievement for a country which just years before, had had no true national army since the 19th century.

Iranian Army-75mm Mountain-Bofors[Click to Enlarge] Iranian artillery unit of 75mm Bofors mountain guns (Picture Source: Network54).

By 1941, an Iranian Army regiment was equipped with 81mm mortars and six 37mm Skoda anti-tank guns. Hence (at least theoretically) this meant that the army’s 45 infantry regiments would have been equipped with minimum of 270 anti-tank guns and another 270 mortars. In practice however, these numbers were most likely less and not as evenly distributed among all the regiments.

Iranian Army-105mm Artillery-Skoda[Click to Enlarge] Iranian artillery unit of 105mm Skoda artillery pieces (Picture Source: Network54).

The organization of the army’s artillery units are believed to have been as follows at the eve of the Anglo-Russian invasion of Iran on August 25, 1941 (assuming that each battery was composed of four artillery pieces):

  • 12 batteries of 100mm Skoda M14 (short barrel) howitzers (Total=48 )
  • 18 batteries 100mm Skoda M30 howitzers (long barrel) (Total=72)
  • 39 batteries 75mm Bofors M1934 mountain guns (Total= 156) – mountain guns carried by pack mules
  • 10 1/2 batteries 75mm Schneider M1909 mountain guns (Total=42) – statistics debated – suggested at lesser (6 1/2 batteries) – mountain guns carried by pack mules
  • 4 Batteries  75mm Schneider Model 1919 (Total=16)
  • 2 batteries 75mm Aboukoff (Russian) (Total=8)
  • Possibly 4 batteries of 105mm Skoda M35 towed by Praga tractors for coastal defense along the Caspian (Possible Total=16)
  • 11 1/2 batteries 75mm M1929 anti-aircraft guns towed by Marmon Herrington vehicles – more artillery pieces had been on order but not delivered after 1939 (Total=46) – Note: Six of the anti-aircraft batteries were part of the mechanized brigade with three anti-aircraft batteries a part of the 6th Khuzestan Division (two of these were in storage or reserve however).
  • 1 battery of unknown British guns (possibly 18-Pounders) (Total=4)

Each regiment possessed three mountain batteries and one field battery. Excepting the mountain guns that were carried by pack mules, the artillery of the mechanized brigade was transported by Marmon Herrington vehicles. The rest of the artillery was drawn by horses.  The above statistics and corresponding information are of course subject to revision as more data is uncovered by future research.

Iranian Army-75mm AAA-Bofors[Click to Enlarge] Iranian artillery unit of 75mm Bofors anti-aircraft artillery (Picture Source: Network54). At least another twenty of these which had been on order were never delivered to Iran.

The Iranian Air Force 1924-1941

This article provides a brief synopsis of the Iranian air force in 1924-1941. For a full history, with references and footnotes, readers are referred to Farrokh’s third text Iran at War: 1500-1988 in pages 267,  271-281 (accompanying footnotes in pages 443-445). Readers are also referred to the following article:

The Junkers Services

The Junkers Company had begun operating a civilian air service, providing flights between Tehran, Mashad, Shiraz, Bushehr, Anzali, Baku, western India and Turkey. Junkers aircraft and personnel had been deployed for reconnaissance flights and possibly transport for the Iranian air service in 1924. In that same year, Iran was to take delivery of ten combat aircraft from France, Germany and Russia.

Pic-9-Junkers F13A Junkers W 33 D-1684 of Junkers-Luftverkehr bearing the Persian inscription of “Qomri” (Persian: Ringdove). It is not clear what the man with the stick is doing; perhaps he is guiding the aircraft towards a parking position (Picture Source: Volker Koos & Lennart Andersson).

Official Birth of the Iranian Air Force

The official formation of a distinct Iranian air arm can be officially dated to June 1, 1924. On that day, Reza Khan (not yet Shah on that year) issued a directive separating the Air Office of the Iranian armed services into a distinct branch wholly independent of the army. By June and August 1924, Iranian pilots were training in France and Russia. The air service however had to wait another two years before being officially recognized as the Iranian Air Force on February 24, 1926. By that same year, the Iranian air service possessed a modest total of just three Junkers F.13 aircraft.

By 1926 the number of aircraft in the Iranian air force inventory doubled to 20 machines. This increased to 30 with the arrival of 10 Russian Polikarpov R-5 aircraft by June 1933.

Pic-8-Polikarpov-R5Two of the ten Polikarpov R-5 reconnaissance aircraft purchased from the Soviet Union in 1933; above is aircraft number 33 preparing to take off (Picture Source: Lennart Andersson). Iranian pilots however, disliked this aircraft’s handling characteristics and the type remained unpopular during its tenure with the nascent Iranian air force.

Aircraft Repair and Manufacturing

The Iranians had worked hard to develop their indigenous aircraft maintenance and production facilities since the early days of Reza Shah. By August 1932 technical schools for the repair of aircraft and pilot training had been established.

Pic-3-Iran Air Force Hawker Hind No. 601An Iranian Air Force Hawker Hind No. 601 before the Second World War. Iran received 35 of these by the fall of 1938 with the Shahbaz Aircraft manufacturing plant in Tehran producing another 20 Hawker Hinds in Iran (Photo Source: Artiklar)

More strides were made in 1935. Production machinery for aircraft manufacturing arrived from England, France and the Pratt and Whitney Company of the United States.

The Shahbaz Aircraft manufacturing plant at Doshan Tappeh was formally inaugurated on September 12, 1936. The plant produced ten Hawker Audex combat aircraft that same year under license. Plans were underway to produce more combat aircraft but the onset of World War Two put a halt to these projects.

Pic-2-Hawker Audax bombersA squadron of Hawker Audax bombers, close air support and reconnaissance aircraft stationed in an airfield in southern Tehran prior to the outbreak of World War Two (Photo Source: Cooper, T. & Bishop, F. (2000). Iran-Iraq War in the Air 1980-1988. Atglen, PA: Shiffer Military History, p.11). Ten of these were built in Iran under license in 1936 by the Shahbaz Aircraft manufacturing plant in Tehran. Sixty of these had already been delivered to Iran in 1934. A number of these flew against British and Russian forces during their invasion of Iran in August 1941.

The Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran (August 25 – September 17, 1941)

By the onset of World War Two Iran possessed 122 outdated Hawker series combat aircraft (Audax, Hind and Fury) with only forty of these fit for combat when the Anglo-Soviets invaded Iran in August 1941. Iran also had (approximately) another 160 aircraft (i.e. trainers, transport, etc.) prior to the outbreak of World War Two. The Iranian air force had a total of 1000 trained personnel at the eve of the Anglo-Soviet invasion. Iran’s obsolete aircraft were distributed to the four major airbases in Tehran, Ahvaz, Tabriz and Mashad.

Pic-6-Iran air force-French made-Breguet 19-recce-bomber An Iranian air force French-manufactured Breguet 19 reconnaissance and bomber aircraft. The aircraft delivered to Iran in 1925 were powered by a 450 hp engine. The aircraft was capable of 145 miles per hour and could fly at a maximum ceiling of 21,982 feet (Photo Source at left: Matofi, 1999, p.1054; Color Draft at right: PlaneTalk Forum).

In practice only the ten P-40 Curtis aircraft at Ahvaz air base were capable of challenging British and Russian aircraft, but only one of these had been assembled from its kits. This was flown by an American pilot-mechanic to Iraq as soon as the Anglo-Soviets invaded in August 1941.

Pic-1-Iranian Hawker Fury no. 482Iranian Hawker Fury no. 482 before the war (Photo Source: Matofi, A., 1999, Tarikh-e-Chahar Hezar Sal-e Artesh-e Iran: Az Tamadon-e Elam ta 1320 Khorsheedi, Jang-e- Iran va Araqh [The 4000 Year History of the Army of Iran: From the Elamite Civilization to 1941, the Iran-Iraq War]. Tehran:Entesharat-e Iman, p.1055). Just weeks after the ceasefire (August 28, 1941), two of these from the Qalemorqhi 1st Air Regiment took on five Soviet Polikarpov I-16 fighters on September 17, 1941 over the Caspian Sea. One plane flew by Captain Vassiq was shot down and crashed into the Caspian Sea. The other flown by Wing Operator Shushtari ran out fuel and crashed into the forests of northern Iran (Cooper & Bishop, 2000, pp.12-13).

The total numbers of actual combat and training aircraft in the Iranian air force are believed to have been as follows (numbers subject to revision with further research data):

  • 63 Audax
  • 34 Hind
  • 24 Fury
  • 10 Curtis P40 (Tomahawk) in crates at Ahvaz airbase (only of these was assembled prior to August 25, 1941 Anglo-Russian invasion – this was flown to Iraq by an American mechanic for the aircraft)
  • 3 Oxford
  • 1 (unserviceable) Hurricane
  • 25 Rearward Cloudstar Trainers

The Ahvaz, Tabriz and Mashad air bases were decommissioned after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in August 1941 but reconstituted after the Second World War.

Pic-7-Shahbaz first Iran domestic fighter A vintage Shahbaz Manufactured De Havilland DH-82A Tiger Moth II aircraft housed at an Iranian hangar; this is in desperate need of restoration (Photo Source: Copyright “Babak T” – available at Airliners.Net).