Additional Images from Kahib in Daghestan

In a follow-up to the article Photographs from Ancient Kahib, Daghestan in the Caucasus” (April 2015), four additional images of Kahib by Gebek Gebekov have been forwarded by Guseyn Guseynov to Kavehfarrokh.com. The April 2015 on Kahib had featured photographs provided by Guseyn Guseynov to Kavehfarrokh.com.

1-Hotoda_1

Spiral motifs along with what appear to ram-type animals; note the five-pointed star (Source: Gebek Gebekov to Guseyn Guseynov & forwarded to Kavehfarrokh.com). There also appears to be a partially depicted triskele symbol.

2-Hotoda_2

Left to right: circle inset with lines/bars set in five directions (perhaps denoting an anthropomorphic entity), swastika type symbol, “hour glass” motif figure, circle with bars, perhaps indicating a spoke-wheel of some kind or possibly a mystical/religious symbol (Source: Gebek Gebekov to Guseyn Guseynov & forwarded to Kavehfarrokh.com). The Swastika is a very ancient symbol and can be found in several ancient cultures such as the Indus Valley of ancient India, and in the pre Indo-European Minoan pottery of ancient Crete. Unfortunately the swastika symbol was (mis-)appropriated by Eurocentric Nazi racialists in the 20th century for nefarious, racialist and destructive purposes.

3-Shamil-2

Depiction of a horseman with a long lance; perhaps an allusion to the ancient Scyths, Alans and Sarmatians whose cultural legacy influenced the ancient Caucasus (Source: Gebek Gebekov to Guseyn Guseynov & forwarded to Kavehfarrokh.com).

4-Shamil-5

Spiral pattern with chevron designs pointing to it from its top, left and right (Source: Gebek Gebekov to Guseyn Guseynov & forwarded to Kavehfarrokh.com).

Two New courses for Fall 2018

Kaveh Farrokh is offering two new courses for the of Fall 2018 at the Paris-based Methodologica Universitas at the Départment de Méthodologie des Sciences Historiques.  See also the Institution’s Encyclopedic project:

Analytica Iranica: The Multidisciplinary Journal of Iranian Studies … Kaveh Farrokh is one of the Academic Advisors of this Encyclopedia project …

The first of these is the first course offered on the military history of ancient Iran or Persia:

Course HIS/CP/202: The Military History of Ancient Iran: 559 BCE-651 CE [Fall 2018, Methodologica Universitas, Départment de Méthodologie des Sciences Historiques]Click here for Registration Information

The course description for the above is as follows (HIS/SP/202):

This course examines Iran’s pre-Islamic military history with respect to political relations, wars, battles with Greece, Rome, Central Asia. These topics are examined in the Achaemenid (559-333 BCE), Parthian (250 BCE-224 CE) and Sassanian (224-651 CE) epochs. Methodology of the course utilizes scientific methodology in archival analysis (primary and secondary sources), numismatics (study of coins), archaeological analysis (analysis of equipment and technology), and statistical methodology (e.g. compiling data for analysis, factor analysis, etc.). The strengths and weaknesses (military, political and social) of each dynasty is examined up to the downfall of ancient Iran to the Arab conquests of Iran (637-651 CE). Detailed analysis is made of developments from the early Achaemenid era to the end of the Sassanian era with respect to equipment, technology, military architecture, military doctrine, and martial culture. Influences upon and from Greece, Rome, Central Asia and Eastern Europe are also examined. The course concludes with a survey of post-Islamic sources reporting of the extensive military literature pertaining to Sassanian weapons and tactics (battlefield tactics, siege craft, etc.) and its influence upon Islamic warfare.

Kaveh Farrokh meeting the late Professor Ehsan Yarshater (1920-2018) during the Honoring ceremony for the late Professor Emeritus Richard Nelson Frye (1920-2014) in the Greater San Francisco area in 2008.

The second is a comprehensive course on the History of ancient Iran or Persia, which will incorporate modern research and academic methodologies incorporating anthropology, archaeology, the study of sources, numismatics, etc:

Course HIS/CP/203: The History of Ancient Iran: 559 BCE-651 CE [Fall 2018, Methodologica Universitas, Départment de Méthodologie des Sciences Historiques]Click here for Registration Information

Three Books published in 2017-2018 on the military history of Ancient Iran or Persia (from left to right): The Armies of Ancient Persia: the Sassanians (2017; see book review by the Military History Journal in 2018); A Synopsis of Sassanian Military Organization and Combat Units (Kaveh Farrokh, Katarzyna Maksymiuk & Gholamreza Karamian, 2018); and The Siege of Amida (Kaveh Farrokh, Katarzyna Maksymiuk & Javier Sánchez-Gracia, 2018).

The course description for the above is as follows (HIS/CP/203):

Course begins with the pre Indo-European era of ancient Iran and the rise of proto-Iranian peoples and arrivals onto the Iranian plateau. Recent archaeological works and research of pre Indo-European Iran, such as the Burnt City and Elam are surveyed. This is followed by detailed historical surveys of the three epochs of ancient Iran: Achaemenids (559-333 BCE), Parthians (250 BCE-224 CE) and Sassanians (224-651 CE). Course material is integrated with methodology utilizing scientific methodology in archival analysis (primary and secondary sources), numismatics (study of coins), archaeological analysis (analysis of equipment and technology), and statistical methodology (e.g. compiling data for analysis, factor analysis, etc.). The political relations and cultural exchanges of the Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanian dynasties with the Greco-Roman, Central Asian, Indian subcontinent, Caucasian, European and Chinese realms are examined. Each epoch is also examined with respect to developments in legal systems, societal development and the role of women, the arts, architecture, learning, medicine, technology, theology and religious philosophy, communications, shipping, commerce and the Silk Route.

[Above] Kaveh Farrokh’s second textShadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War-Персы: Армия великих царей-سایه‌های صحرا-” cited by the BBC-Persian service as theBest History Book of 2007(November 5, 2008), as well as the by Kayhan News Service of London (November 12, 2008). The text was nominated by the Independent Book Publishers’ Association (Benjamin Franklin Award) among the top finalists for the Best textbooks of 2008. The book has been recognized by world-class scholars such as the late Professor Emeritus Richard Nelson Frye (1920-2014), Harvard University, Dr. Geoffrey Greatrex, Department of Classics and Religious Studies, University of Ottawa, Dr. Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones, School of HistoryUniversity of Edinburgh and Dr. Patrick Hunt. The book was reviewed in the world-class academic (peer-reviewed by top Iranian Studies scholars) Iranshenasi journal in 2010: Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War, by Dr. Kaveh Farrokh. Iranshenasi, Volume XXII, No.1, Spring 2010, pp.1-5 (see document in pdf). [Below] Translations of Shadows in the Desert [A] Persian translation by Taghe Bostan Publishers (2009) [B] Persian translation by Qoqnoos Publishers (2009) [C] the original textbook (2008) and [D] Russian translation by EXMO Publishers.

Photographs from Ancient Kahib, Daghestan in the Caucasus

The photographs below of ancient Kahib in Daghestan were forwarded by Guseyn Guseynov to Kavehfarrokh.com on March 1, 2015. Additional photographs of Kahib will be posted in October 2015.

Ancient Mountain Village: Overview

The below photographs are of the ancient mountain village at Kahib, Daghestan in the Caucasus.

Kahib-Dagestan-4A view of the ancient village of Kahib, note the tower (Source: Guseyn Guseynov).

Kahib-Dagestan-1The tower at Kahib. It is not clear what function this tower served; perhaps this an observatory and/or served some type of religious function (Source: Guseyn Guseynov).

Kahib-Dagestan-8Walled settlement at Kahib (Source: Guseyn Guseynov).

Kahib-Dagestan-11Pathway in Kahib (Guseyn Guseynov).

Archway

There is an archway at Kahib which bears strong parallels to architecture of the Sassanian era (224-651 CE).

Kahib-Dagestan-6This archway bears an almost exact resemblance to one of the archways at the ancient Ādur-Gushnasp or Shiz (modern-day Takhte Suleiman) Fire-Temple in Iran’s Azarbaijan province (Source: Guseyn Guseynov). The Ādur-Gushnasp sacred fire was dedicated to the Arteshtaran (Elite warriors) of the Sassanian Spah (Modern Persian: Sepah = Army). For more on Ādur-Gushnasp, read here…

The photograph below shows the parallels between Sassanian architecture and that of ancient Kahib, in Daghestan of the Caucasus.

Takhte-Suleiman-2The archway at the ancient Ādur-Gushnasp or Shiz (modern-day Takhte Suleiman) Fire-Temple in Iran’s Azarbaijan province (Source: World Historia).

Symbols Carved upon Stone Bricks

The stones of the ancient village often feature various symbols and depictions; again their meaning and symbolism remain open to speculation but were evidently part of an ancient culture indigenous to the Caucasus.

Kahib-Dagestan-9Five-pointed star and upside down bird (Source: Guseyn Guseynov).

Kahib-Dagestan-2Eroded “Chevron” motifs (Source: Guseyn Guseynov).

Kahib-Dagestan-3Left stone brick depicting a dog and possibly a horse (?); right stone brick with a “Plus” sign, possibly a pagan cross (?) (Source: Guseyn Guseynov).