Japan and Ancient Iran


Readers interested in the relationships between ancient Iran and Japan are invited to read the following article in Persian by Dr. Jamshid Jamshidi:

Japan and Ancient Iran (in Persian)-ژاپن و ايران باستان(pdf)

For more English-language articles on the relationships between ancient Iran and Japan, readers are referred to Dr. Jamshid Jamshidi’s SHAMOGOLOPARVANEH website which hosts the following articles by Japanese scholar, Dr. Masato Tojo: 


Japanese scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma by Hakuin Ekaku 白隠慧鶴, 1686–1769. The Bodhidharma is said to be a blue-eyed Persian 碧眼胡僧(Hekigan-kosō) in Zen tradition. “Blue-eyed Persian” means Hellenized Persian, and/or a Persian who has much knowledge about western culture. Mithra’s magi are such Persians (Picture and information from Dr. Masato Tojo on Zen Buddhism and Persian culture).

Masters of Linguistics and Music: Iran’s Sattar and Italy’s Andrea Bocelli


The WAALM Academy in association with Liszt Music Academy back in 2005 studied many renowned musicians and artists and now WAALM – SCD (School of Cultural Diplomacy), has started to conduct a new research into the relationships between (a) the pronunciation of vowels and consonants  and (b) the vocal quality and  power of professional tenors and vocalists.

it is here where we find amazing connections between Italy’s Maestro, Andrea Bocelli and Iran’s Maestro Sattar – both world-class tenors in their own right.  Sattar and Bocelli display striking similarities in the way they pronounce vowels, and the stress and emphasis they place on intonations. 


World class Maestros: Iran’s Sattar (left) and Italy’s Andrea Bocelli (right). 


One of the most interesting aspects of linguistics is the role of emotion in delivering speech (generally known as “affect” in linguistics). What constitutes “affect” or “emotion”? This is of course a gigantic topic, but for professional tenors such as Sattar and Bocelli, these can constitute domains such as joy, sadness, love (and/or adoration), lamentation and/or yearning (esp. over the loss of a loved one) and admiration. But world-class tenors such as Bocelli and Sattar have far more dimensions than just vocal prowess – at least in the linguistics sense.


Maestro Andrea Bocelli sings “Besame Mucho” in 2006. Note the striking vocal intonations between Maestros Bocelli and Sattar. 


Iran’s Maestro Sattar – a world class tenor who, like Bocelli, displays an amazing command of lingusitics (semantics, syntax, affect and other non-linguistic cues) resulting in the exemplary delivery of musical pieces. The above performance by Sattar was at the WAALM ceremonies in London in 2008 (he sings “Akhareen Taalash” or “Last Effort”). Readers are also encouraged to consult the article “Insights – Bocelli and Sattar” (in pdf).

Linguistics places great emphasis on the role of non-semantic cues, notably intonation in speech in concert with gestures and facial expressions (linguists often refer to these as para-linguistic cues).   It is these very cues that have so much impact on the delivery of words in music (be it Italian, Persian, English, etc.). Sattar and Bocelli deliver a powerful emotional tone in their music- they are able to do this  by synthesizing high-level technical lingusitics (semantics or meaning of words and syntax or grammer with an impeccable command of para-linguistic cues. Another world-class singer of this calibre was the late Frank Sinatra (1915-1998) whose English-language songs also displayed an amazing synthesis of linguistic and para-linguistic cues.

The late Frank Sinatra (1915-1998) singing “Fly me to the Moon”. Sinatra, one of America’s very best musical artists ever, continues to be admired world-wide for his music. Note Sinatra’s amazing command of speech, tone, intonation and musical delivery.

Readers are also encoruaged to consult the interview of WAALM School of Cultural Diplomacy with Maestro Sattar on his perspective on the role of Music in fostering peace, understanding and social awareness  (in pdf). See also WAALM School of Cultural Diplomacy’s interview with Maestro Bocelli on the role of Music in fostering peace, understanding and social awareness (in pdf).


Department of Traditions & Cultural History – WAALM – SCD



Prof. Kaveh Farrokh, PhD
  Head of Department SCD Faculty Page


Shadows in the Desert The WAALM Award Winner Book of 2008 By Prof. Farrokh, PhD WAALM ARCHIVE



For latest News, Articles and Interviews, visit our Diplomatic Journal _________________ WAALM – SCD is an Institutional Member of: ACUNS The Academic Council on The United Nations System  _______    

Department of Traditions & Cultural History Accepts Applications
Department of Traditions and Cultural History provides insights into historic traditions and cultures of the major ancient and modern civilizations. It equips the learners with an overview on cross-cultural aspect of traditions in humanities.

Subjects:     – Traditions and Encounters         – Human Thoughts and Culture   – Costumes and Ceremonies      – Cross – Cultural ArchitectureQualifications:
Each subject can be taken as a single module or group of study modules / subjects.

Certificate:  will be conferred to those who successfully complete a single module.

Advanced Certificate:  will be conferred to those who in addition to completion of a module, they carry
out a research and a short dissertation (5,500 words) on an approved related topic.

Diploma:  will be conferred to those who successfully complete four modules and a final dissertation on an approved topic (8,000 words).

Research Based Diploma: will be conferred to those who could successfully carry out an extensive
research and dissertation (17,000 words) on an approved topic by this department. For Further Information & Admission click HERE             


New Military History Book by Ian Hughes: Belisarius-The Last Roman General

Ian Hughes has produced an excellent military history text entitled:

Belisarius: The Last Roman General (2009). Barnsley, South Yorkshire, England: Pen & Sword Books Limited. ISBN: 978-1-84415-833-1.


To order, kindly contact:

Address: PEN & SWORD BOOKS LIMITED -47 Church Street, Barnsley, South Yorkshire, S70 2AS, England [Website: www.pen-and-sword.co.uk]

E-Mail: enquiries@pen-and-sword.co.uk

Hughes’ text is meticuloulsy researched with a plethora of references and resources. The academic calibre of this text will undoubtedly make this a major resource in classrooms and libraries across major universities.


This book is a military history of the campaigns of Belisarius.  After fighting the Persians, Belisarius was sent by the Emperor Justinian to reconquer North Africa from the Vandals.  This he did in a single year at the age of 29.  After this success he was sent to Italy to fight the Ostrogoths, where he recaptured the ‘eternal city’ of Rome for the Romans. 

A close-up of the Mosaic of the Basilica of San Vitale at Ravenna. The Romano-Byzantine emperor Justinian (r. 527-565) is seen at the center (note halo surrounding his crowned head). Belisarius (500-565) stands to the left of Justinian with the prominent banker, Giuliano Argentario, standing to the right. As noted by Hughes, the Basilica of San Vitale mosaic bears the only portrait we have today of Belisarius.

The book discusses the evolution of the late-Roman/early-Byzantine army and its  systems of warfare. The text also discusses the army, military equipment and tactics of Rome’s chief enemies, Sassanian Iran, Goths and Vandals. 

The Porta Pinciana (The Gate of  Pinciana). This came under the control of Belisarius during the siege of Rome. Belisarius launched a successful sortie from this location against the Germanic Goths.

There is a constant analysis of Belisarius’ exemplary abilities as a general throughout the book

Belisarius and the Military history of Romano-Sassanian Warfare

Hughes’ text is also ground-breaking in that it follows a new (and welcome) Western tradition in which (Western) scholars examine the military history of ancient pre-Islamic Iran with objectivity and balance.

Belisarius (500-565) is one of the most brilliant military strategists ever produced by the Romano-Byzantine world and its Western/European successors. Few are aware that it was in Sassanian Iran where Belisarius met his military equals. Iran’s Savaran cavalry not only held their own against the formidable armies of Belisarius but even scored a number of successes. Belisarius in turn also scored his own successes against the Savaran; indeed the Iranian-Roman frontier experienced numerous battles before the arrival of the Arabo-Islamic armies in the 7th century.

In an endeavor to provide a closer insight into Sassanian arms, equipment and tactics, Hughes has printed a number of diagrams that were produced by Kaveh Farrokh during his research for his first book Elite Sassanian cavalry published in 2005 and translated to Persian by Yusef Amiri in 2009. Farrokh also had the assistance of military historian and martial arts specialist Antony Karasuals in Australia in his research. One notable contribution by Karasulas was his deployment of the Sassanian method of firing arrows for assessment.

Below is one diagram by Farrokh which is being published for the first time in the Hughes text:


Late Sassanian sword (Farrokh 2004; reprinted Hughes 2010, p.51). Entire sword from front [1] and back [2]; sword handle at front [3] and back [4]; sword mount at front [5] and back [6].

Hughes also provides excellent maps, diagrams and battle plans throughout his text.



The Romano-Sassanian frontier at the time of Emperor Justinian. Note the location of Romano-Iranian battles in Pers-Armenia, Dara and Callinicum.

Hughes’ text is a highly recommended item for those interested in Roman-Byzantine military history, including those interested in the military history of the wars between Sassanian Iran and the Romano-Byzantines.


Late Sassanian belt found at Nahavand (Farrokh 2004; reprinted Hughes 2010, p.52). This belt system utilizes the Turco-Avar lappet suspension system for swords and quivers.






Faramarz Aslani WAALM Awardee of 2005 in Music His New Album THE 3RD LINE Coming Soon! 

Bamahang Productions   Also from Bamahang Producations The New Dang Show Album: ‘Shiraz 40 Year Old’  Available Now

6Qs Exclusive Interview with the Queen of Jazz  Jane Monheit 
 Coming soon!

Official Website  

WAALM SCHOOL OF CULTURAL DIPLOMACY   Department of Traditions & Cultural History, headed by Prof. Kaveh Farrokh, PhD is now functional and ready to welcome applicants www.waalmdiplomacy.org  
Department of
Traditions & Cultural History, headed by
Prof. Kaveh Farrokh, PhD
is now functional and ready to welcome applicants

SATTAR, Pop-tenor Classic singer
    Sattar,the WAALM awardee of 2005 in music has lunched his new Blog and Youtube channel. Click on the images to enter.  Official Web: www.sattarmusic.net WAALM Archive Upcoming concerts: 01 Oct 10 Amsterdam 02 Oct 10 Koln

6Qs is a new feature on our   WAALM – Diplomatic Journal. A series of short interviews with young, talented and rising stars, high profile artists, scholars and executives. On this issue: 6Qs With Hollywood Actress Necar Zadegan


The Dorbayanis’ Blog Their Official Web: www.dorbayani.com

  THE DORBAYANIS’ BLOG This is where you can read the WAALM Founders latest articles on Cultural Diplomacy, Peace and Tolerance, Human Rights, and Women. The latest: POVERTY : ARTICEL 25 You can subscribe to this blog via email or  RSS – posts. 
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